An LDS Lexicon: Endue, Endow, Endowment

This is the second entry in an on-going series I call “An LDS Lexicon.” Each entry in my LDS Lexicon series contains etymology, etymologically related words, some information about the Hebrew and Greek terms from which the word is translated in the Bible (if applicable), and some personal insights about the word.

This entry has been corrected and updated from when it was originally posted.

UPDATE: Forgive the lack of characters on the etymological words.  My migration to wordpress caused me to lose some data.

ENDUE
1. To provide with a quality or trait; endow
2. To put on (a piece of clothing)

Etymology & Roots

deuk- (Indo European root – “to lead”)
ind?cere (Latin – “to lead in”)
enduire (Old French – “to lead in, induct”)
enduen (Middle English influenced by “endowen”)
endue (Modern English – “to provide with a quality, endow”

eu- (Indo European root – “to dress”)
induere (Latin – “to don, to put on”)
induen (Middle English – “to clothe”)
endue/indue (Modern English – “to put on (a piece of clothing)”)

Etymologically Related Words

deuk- (Indo European root – “to lead”)
d?cere (Latin – “to lead”)
douche, duchess, duct, ductile, duke, abduct, aqueduct, conduce, deduce, educe, introduce, produce reduce, seduce, subdue, traduce

deuk- (Indo European root – “to lead”)
?duc?re (Latin – “to lead out, bring up”)
educate

deuk- (Indo European root – “to lead”)
t?on (Old English – “to pull, draw, lead”)
tug, wanton

deuk- (Indo European root – “to lead”)
togian (Old English – “to draw, drag”)
tow, taut

deuk- (Indo European root – “to lead”)
t?gan (Old English – “to bind”)
tie

deuk- (Indo European root – “to lead”)
t?am (Old English – “descendant, family, race, brood, team”)
team

deuk- (Indo European root – “to lead”)
t?man, t?eman (Old English – “to beget”)
teem

eu- (Indo European root – “to dress”)
exuere (Latin – “to doff”)
exuviae (“The cast-off skins of organisms, like crab shells or the larvae and nymphs of insects.”)

ENDOW, ENDOWMENT
1. To provide with property, income, or a source of income
2. To equip or supply with a talent or quality

Etymology & Roots

d?- (Indo European root – “to give”)
d?s (Latin – “dowry”)
d?t?re (Latin – “to dower”)
endouer (Old French – “to provide with a dowry”)
endowen (Middle English)
endow, endowment (Modern English)

Etymologically Related Words

d?- (Indo European root – “to give”)
dare (Latin – “to give”)
dado, date, dative, datum, die (singular of dice), add, betray, edition, perdition, render, rent, surrender, tradition, traitor, treason, vend

d?- (Indo European root – “to give”)
d?num (Latin – “gift”)
donation, donor, condone, pardon

d?- (Indo European root – “to give”)
d?s (Latin – “dowry”)
dot, dowager, dower, dowry

d?- (Indo European root – “to give”)
d?ron (Greek – “gift”)
Pandora

d?- (Indo European root – “to give”)
didonai (Greek – “to give”)
dose, anecdote, antidote

Translated in KJV from Old Testament Hebrew Words

??? (maw – har’) to obtain or acquire by paying purchase price, give a dowry
Total occurrences: 2 in 2 verses
Translated as: endow (1), surely (1)

??? (zaw – bad’) to endow, bestow, endow with, bestow upon
Total occurrences: 1 in 1 verse
Translated as: endue (1)

??? (yaw – dah’) to know
Total Occurances: 2 in 2 verses
Translated as: endued (2)

Translated in KJV from New Testament Greek Words

????? (en – doo’ – o) to sink into (clothing), put on, clothe one’s self
Total occurrences: 29 in 26 verses
Translated as: put on (18), clothed with (2), clothed in (2), have on (2), clothe with (1), be endued (1), arrayed in (1), be clothed (1), vr put on (1)

????????? (ep – ee – stay’ – mone) intelligent, experienced, one having the knowledge of an expert
Total occurrences: 1 in 1 verse
Translated as: endued with knowledge (1)

Insight and Notes

“The Endowment” is the name of one of the sacred ordinances or ritual sacraments performed in the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Only those members of the church who have adhered to the behavioral standards of the Church are permitted to enter the LDS Temples and participate in the Endowment ceremony. This requirement helps participants to be prepared before they make sacred oaths with God and helps them achieve the spiritual insight they will need to better understand the symbolism of the ordinance. Because of its sacred nature, I will not be discussing the details of the Endowment ritual here.

The term Endowment comes from a wonderfully rich and complex etymological tapestry. Its use in the church appears to be related originally to Luke chapter 24 verse 49 in the New Testament, where Jesus tells his apostles:

“And, behold, I send the promise of my Father upon you: but tarry ye in the city of Jerusalem, until ye be endued with power from on high.”

The term in the modern church is rooted in revelations given to Joseph Smith by God, as recorded in the book of Doctrine and Covenants, that enlist similar language in reference to an endowment of power that the church members would be able to receive once they had built a temple. But in these revelations, the word “endowed” is employed instead of “endued.”

The word “endue” has two meanings, each from a different etymology.

The second meaning of endue is “To put on (a piece of clothing).” This meaning is derived from words relating specifically to putting on clothes. Since the word endue as it appears in Luke 24 is translated from the New Testament Greek word ?????, which is clearly etymologically related and also means “to clothe,” it is this second definition that was like intended. The same Greek word is often used in the epistles of Paul, but is translated as “put on” instead of endue. For example:

Galatians 3:27 “For as many of you as have been baptized into Christ have put on Christ”

Ephesians 6:11 “Put on the whole armour of God, that ye may be able to stand against the wiles of the devil.”

The first definition of endue is “to provide with a quality or trait” which is considered a synonym for the modern definition of the word “endow,” but it is derived from different roots. Endue in this sense comes from Old French and Latin terms meaning “to induct, lead in.” To induct means “To place ceremoniously or formally in an office or a position; to admit as a member; To introduce, as to new experience or knowledge; initiate.” So before it became a synonym for “endow,” endue made reference to ceremonial initiation. Through its roots it is related to a myriad of words derived from the concept of “to lead.” Especially noteworthy in the context of the LDS Endowment ritual, among the words derived from the same roots we can see clear concepts of leadership and leading, direction, education, binding and tying, family relationships, and posterity.

The form and pronunciation of the Middle English word from which endow is derived (“endowen”) was possibly similar enough to the Middle English word from which endue comes (“enduen”) that endue was influenced by and took upon some of the meaning of of the word endow. That is how its meaning shifted from “induct” to a synonym for endow.

So to this already complex network of meanings, we add the word “endow.” The word is derived from terms that refer specifically to a marriage dowry, and through its roots it is related to concepts of giving, bestowing, and giving up. It appears only once in the Bible, in Exodus 22:16:

“And if a man entice a maid that is not betrothed, and lie with her, he shall surely endow her to be his wife.”

Endow here is translated from the Hebrew word that means “to obtain or acquire by paying purchase price, give a dowry.” So endow in this instance does not refer in any discernible way to the endowment ritual of the church, only to the dowry required to be paid by the Mosaic law.

This conflation of meanings can be seen in the King James translation of Genesis 30:20:

“And Leah said, God hath endued me with a good dowry; now will my husband dwell with me, because I have born him six sons: and she called his name Zebulun.”

Here, endue is translated from a Hebrew word meaning “to bestow upon or endow with,” while at the same time referring explicitly to a dowry.

The word endue only appears two other times in the Bible, and both appear to be irregular translations of a Hebrew word referring to possessing knowledge or understanding.

Even though they come from different etymological backgrounds, the definitions of endue and endow work very well together. It is not a great leap from the literal “to provide with a quality or trait” to the metaphorical “to clothe with a quality or trait,” and from there to a ceremonial induction involving an initiation to knowledge and a symbolic clothing with a quality or trait.

The revelations given to Joseph Smith employ the word “endow” when referring to the power that would be bestowed upon the elders of the church from on high. This is clearly meant to echo the use of “endue” in Luke chapter 24. And the word endow in these instances communicates being clothed with power as well as being given a gift or provided with a celestial quality.

Miraculously, the interplay among the three terms and their etymologies is reflected within the Endowment ceremony itself, which is simultaneously an enduement, an induction, and an endowment all rolled into one glorious ritual that is both symbolic and literal.

From a parallel standpoint, we might say that, like the temple, the temple of the womb is a holy place where the children of God can go to be endued and endowed with godliness.

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2 Responses to An LDS Lexicon: Endue, Endow, Endowment

  1. Thank you for this. I love learning about things like this – with the new Sac temple open…I’ll be thinking about this as I go through the session.

  2. Thanks Steph. It is fun for me to explore these words and I’m glad that others find it interesting too.

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